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Revolutionizing Healthcare: Cutting-Edge Biosensors Paving the Way for 21st Century Point-of-Care Diagnostics

Ushaa Eswaran, Vivek Eswaran, Keerthna Murali, Vishal Eswaran


Point-of-care (POC) diagnostics stand as a transformative paradigm in healthcare, promising rapid testing directly at patient care sites. Biosensors, amalgamating biological recognition elements with physico-chemical transducers, emerge as pivotal tools in crafting rapid and sensitive POC diagnostic devices. Recent strides in nanotechnology, microfluidics, and flexible electronics have engendered a wave of innovative biosensor designs and detection methodologies. This paper provides an extensive review of the latest advancements in biosensors tailored explicitly for POC applications. Diving into signal transduction approaches, the exploration encompasses electrochemical, optical, piezoelectric, and magnetic methods, elucidating their diverse roles in facilitating POC diagnostics. Electrochemical techniques, encompassing amperometry and potentiometry, exhibit substantial promise in terms of sensitivity and real-time monitoring capabilities. Optical biosensors leverage fluorescence, surface plasmon resonance, and colorimetry, offering high specificity and rapid detection. Meanwhile, piezoelectric and magnetic biosensors unveil prospects for label-free and real-time monitoring in complex sample matrices. The integration of nanomaterials has revolutionized biosensor performance, where nanoparticles, nanowires, graphene, and 2D materials amplify sensitivity, specificity, and biocompatibility, nurturing the groundwork for ultra-sensitive POC devices. Concurrently, microfluidic systems have streamlined sample handling, ushering in miniaturization benefits, reduced analysis time, and heightened portability. Advancements in wearable biosensors, powered by flexible electronics, promise continuous monitoring and real-time data transmission, underpinning the pathway to personalized healthcare solutions. Furthermore, the synthesis of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering techniques augments biosensor performance, propelling tailored sensitivity, selectivity, and adaptability to an extensive spectrum of analytes. Delving beyond the realm of theoretical constructs, successful commercialization instances, such as glucose meters, underscore the viability of biosensor technology in healthcare. Looking forward, the trajectory of biosensors in POC diagnostics hinges on refining sensitivity thresholds, fortifying multiplexing capacities, advancing miniaturization for portability, and scaling manufacturability, thereby cementing their role as transformative agents poised to enhance patient care through rapid, cost-effective, and precise diagnostics.


point-of-care diagnostics, biosensors, nanomaterials, microfluidics, wearable devices

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