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Assessing of Different Genotype of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) against Leaf Rust and Loose Smut in Far-Western of Nepal

Shalik Dangi, Abhisek Shrestha, Gopal B.K.C.

Abstract


Leaf rust (Puccinia graminis tritici)and loose smut (Ustilago nuda tritici) are one of the most important diseases of wheat in the world, and growing resistant cultivars is the most economical, effective and environmentally safe method for controlling those diseases. With the aim of evaluating leaf rust and loose smut resistance, 9 promissing wheat genotypes, viz. BL4363, WK2414, NL1190, WK2438, WK1792, WK2437, Chyakhura, WK2278 and NL1164, and one released genotype WK1204 were tested in field at Bhagetada, Doti, during the winter of 2016/017. Natural incidence of leaf rust and loose smut were recorded at harvest by randomly selecting 10 plants from sample row and scored by Zaddock’s method in a scale of 0-5 and modified scale method 0-10, respectively. The yield attributes and phonological characters were recorded from the central 3.15 m2 net areas of each plot. Significantly different results were found in incidence of leaf rust and loose smut and plant height, spikes/m2, days to heading, days to maturity and harvest index within the 10 varieties under drought condition. The highly resistant varieties were WK2414 (0.00%) WK2437 (0.00%) and NL1190 (0.00%) to both leaf rust and loose smut incidence, and the most susceptible variety to loose smut was BL4363 (5.00%) and WK1204 (2.647%) to leaf rust. The lowest incidence of loose smut and leaf rust was found in the genotypes NL1164, WK2438, WK2414 and WK1792 with the highest grain yield 3.553 t/ha, 3.037 t/ha, 2.942 t/ha and 2.913 t/ha, respectively, and the highest incidence of loose smut and leaf rust was found in WK2278 and WK1204 genotypes having lowest grain yield, 1.83 t/ha and 1.826 t/ha respectively. Highest plant height was found in WK1792 genotype i.e. 107cm and WK2278 genotype i.e. 106cm. WK1204 variety was found to be shortest i.e. 77cm. Early maturity was found in WK1792 with 127 days of maturity. The late maturing varieties were WK2278 (139.3 days), Chyakhura (139.3 days) and WK1204 (142 days). The highest no. of spikes per m2 was found in variety NL1164 (321.3) and the least (143.7) in WK1204. Thus, considering all the factors and parameters, the genotype WK2414 was found to be resistant to leaf rust and loose smut incidence and superior in yield. So, further mother trial and baby trial as well as breeding should be conducted in this genotype in order to cope and mitigate with hazardous climate change and disease incidence.

Keywords: genotypes, varieties, leaf rust, loose smut, Zaddock, mother trial and baby trial, yield attributes, phonological, resistance, susceptible

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