Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

A Pre-domestic Approach for Farm Animal Production: Free Range, Resource-efficient, Organic-driven and Fair-trade-directed

Vásquez Edwin Fernando


Food security and Human Nutrition are two topics of interest for modern world farming. Food scarcity does not allow proper nutrient intake in some areas of the modern world and even in locations where food is abundant concern is persistent given the use of bioaccumulable agrochemicals for their production. Animal welfare is also a modern concern. To this regard, organic and free-range farming meet the demand of a reduced number high-income consumers. A Pre-domestic approach is presented here and defined as organic, free-range and producer-consumer fair trade production of domesticated animals in association with plants of commercial relevance where the maximum potential of animal survival instinct thus genomic potential are favored by the producer. Thus, rendering high-quality and efficient animal and plant production at lower prices making it accessible for the general population. Pre-domestic approaches are prone to automation in principle. A Pre-domestic Approach for Gallus gallus is finally described.


Pre-domestic approach, poultry production, survival instinct, organic, fair-trade

Full Text:



Vigne, J.D., 2011. The origins of animal domestication and husbandry: a major change in the history of humanity and the biosphere. Comptes Rendus Biologies, 334(3), pp.171–181.

Larson, G. and Fuller, D.Q., 2014. The evolution of animal domestication. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 45, pp. 115–136.

Al-Nasser, A., Al-Khalaifa, H., Al-Saffar, A., Khalil, F., Albahouh, M., Ragheb, G., Al-Haddad, A. and Mashaly, M., 2007. Overview of chicken taxonomy and domestication. World's Poultry Science Journal, 63(2), pp. 285–300.

Xiang, H., Gao, J., Yu, B., Zhou, H., Cai, D., Zhang, Y., Chen, X., Wang, X., Hofreiter, M. and Zhao, X., 2014. Early Holocene chicken domestication in northern China. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(49), pp. 17564–17569.

Tixier-Boichard, M., Bed’hom, B. and Rognon, X., 2011. Chicken domestication: from archeology to genomics. Comptes Rendus Biologies, 334(3), pp. 197–204.

Miao, Y.W., Peng, M.S., Wu, G.S., Ouyang, Y.N., Yang, Z.Y., Yu, N., Liang, J.P., Pianchou, G., Beja-Pereira, A., Mitra, B. and Palanichamy, M.G., 2013. Chicken domestication: an updated perspective based on mitochondrial genomes. Heredity, 110(3), pp. 277–282.

Kanginakudru, S., Metta, M., Jakati, R.D. and Nagaraju, J., 2008. Genetic evidence from Indian red jungle fowl corroborates multiple domestication of modern day chicken. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 8(1), p.174.

FAO, (2010). Small scale chicken production. Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation–CTA. 1–9.

Sheppy, A., 2011. The colour of domestication and the designer chicken. Optics & Laser Technology, 43(2), pp. 295–301.

Compassion in Word farming, (2013). The Life of Broiler chickens. Farm Animal and Welfare Compendium. 1–8.

Compassion in Word farming, (2012). The Life of: Laying Hens. Farm Animal and Welfare Compendium. 1–6.

National Farm Animal Care Council, (2017). Code of Practice for the care and handling of Pullets and Laying Hens. Ottawa, Canada. 1–88.

Miele, M., 2011. The taste of happiness: Free-range chicken. Environment and Planning A, 43(9), pp. 2076–2090.

Netto, D.A., Lima, H.J.D.A., Alves, J.R., Morais, B.C.D., Rosa, M.S. and Bittencourt, T.M., 2018. Production of laying hens in different rearing systems under hot weather. Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences, 40.

Englmaierova M, et al., (2014). Effects of laying hens housing system on laying performance, egg quality characteristics, and egg microbial contamination. Czech Journal of Animal Sciences. 59(8): 345–352.

Tactacan, G.B., Guenter, W., Lewis, N.J., Rodriguez-Lecompte, J.C. and House, J.D., 2009. Performance and welfare of laying hens in conventional and enriched cages. Poultry science, 88(4), pp.698–707.

Chumpawadee, S., Chantiratikul, A. and Chantiratikul, P., 2007. Chemical composition and nutritional evaluation of protein feeds for ruminants using an in vitro gas production technique. Journal of Agricultural Technology, 3(2), pp.191–202.

Longo, F.A., Menten, J.F.M., Pedroso, A.A., Figueiredo, A.N., Racanicci, A.M.C., Gaiotto, J.B. and Sorbara, J.O.B., 2004. Determination of the energetic value of corn, soybean meal and micronized full fat soybean for newly hatched chicks. Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science, 6(3), pp.147–151.

USSEC, (2015). The Nutritional Value of U.S. Soybean Meal. Chesterfield, USA. 1–12.


  • There are currently no refbacks.