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Role of Bioactive Compounds on Protein Utilization in Ruminants: A Review

Kanti Raje, Alok Mishra, V. Beena V, Sadhana Ojha, Y. Rojita Devi

Abstract


Insufficient nutrition is the primary drive of low productivity by ruminants. These insufficiencies can be corrected by supplementation with high-density feeds and locally available tree legumes. These tree legumes contain various types of bioactive compounds, which can be defined as secondary plant metabolites (PSM) that are extra nutritional substances having pharmacological or toxicological effects in man and animals. Besides the primary biosynthetic, the secondary metabolites are also produced within the plants. They are compounds not associated with the growth and development and daily functioning of the plants. Most PSM possess biological activity on other living organisms, i.e. they affect some animal metabolic processes and/or the growth rate of some micro-organisms. These (Tannin) protect the protein from microbial hydrolysis and deamination in the rumen and increases the proportion of dietary amino acids available for post-ruminal absorption. Saponin-containing plants have been shown to suppress the protozoal population and increase the bacteria and fungi population. Protozoa contributed significantly to intra-ruminal cycling of microbial (N) that increases the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis.

Keywords: bioactive compounds, microbial protein, ruminants, saponin, tannin

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