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Signs of Approaching Parturition, Stages of Parturition, Hormonal Cascade of Parturition and Cause of Dystocia in Domestic Animals: An Overview

A. Thangamani, Manda Srinivas, B. Chandra Prasad


Parturition encompasses the various physiological processes involved in the birth of young ones. Parturition is a physiological and hormonal cascade process by which pregnant uterus delivers foetus and foetal membranes at the end of normal length of gestation or pregnancy. Domestic animals vary in their pregnancy period as well as signs of parturition. Canine species are unique in their pre- and peri-parturient event occurring during pregnancy and parturition. The imminent signs of parturition are unique to species of animal. The present overview explained about different signs of approaching parturition and parturition process in domestic animals including cows and buffaloes, mare, bitches, cats and sows.

Key words: domestic animals, dystocia, hormonal cascade, imminent signs, parturition

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