Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Chikungunya Peregrination from Southern Tanzania (1952) to Italy (2017)

Neha Srivastava


Chikungunya is a mosquito–transmitted systemic viral infection disseminated in Africa, Asia and the Indian subcontinent. In recent decades, it has also spread to the boundaries of Europe and the Americas. Since the first discovery (outbreak) of the virus in Tanzania (1952), there have been many reported outbreaks worldwide, around one third of human population were affected in epidemic episode of Re´union Island (2005-2006). Recently, confirmed cases (2013) in the French part of the Caribbean island of St Martin, Keneya (2016), France (2016) and Italy (2017) have created more emphasis to study this re-emerging virus. This review covers most recent outbreaks, mutation, its impact on virus re-emergence and adaptations along with atypical clinico-pathological complications, treatment and prevention till date.

Full Text:



. M.M. Thiboutot, S. Kannan, O.U. Kawalekar, D.J. Shedlock, A.S. Khan, G. Sarangan, K. Muthumani. Chikungunya: a potentially emerging epidemic? PLoS Neglect Trop Dis. 2010; 4(4): e623p.

. O. Schwartz, M.L. Albert. Biology and pathogenesis of chikungunya virus, Nat Rev Microbiol. 2010; 8(7): 491–500p.

. A. Paredes, S. Weaver, S. Watowich, W. Chiu. Structural biology of old world and new world alphaviruses, In: Infectious Diseases from Nature: Mechanisms of Viral Emergence and Persistence. 2005, 179–85p.

. A. Suhrbier, M.C. Jaffar-Bandjee, P. Gasque. Arthritogenic alphaviruses – an overview, Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2012; 8(7): 420–9p.

. .P. Kalantri, R. Joshi, L.W. Riley. Chikungunya epidemic: an Indian perspective, Nat Med J India. 2006; 19(6): 315p.

. E. Bernard, M. Solignat, B. Gay, N. Chazal, S. Higgs, C. Devaux, L. Briant. Endocytosis of chikungunya virus into mammalian cells: role of clathrin and early endosomal compartments, PLoS One. 2010; 5(7): e11479p.

. J.E. Voss, M.C. Vaney, S. Duquerroy, C. Vonrhein, C. Girard-Blanc, E. Crublet, F.A. Rey. Glycoprotein organization of Chikungunya virus particles revealed by X-ray crystallography, Nature. 2010; 468(7324): 709–12p.

. I. Schuffenecker, I. Iteman, A. Michault, S. Murri, L. Frangeul, M.C. Vaney, S. Brisse. Genome microevolution of chikungunya viruses causing the Indian Ocean outbreak, PLoS Med. 2006; 3(7): e263p.

. J.E. Staples, R.F. Breiman, A.M. Powers. Chikungunya fever: an epidemiological review of a re-emerging infectious disease, Clin Infect Dis. 2009; 49(6): 942–8p.

. E. Sreekumar, A. Issac, S. Nair, R. Hariharan, M.B. Janki, D.S. Arathy, M.R. Pillai. Genetic characterization of 2006–2008 isolates of Chikungunya virus from Kerala, South India, by whole genome sequence analysis, Virus Genes. 2010; 40(1): 14–27p.

. S. Rajapakse, C. Rodrigo, A. Rajapakse. Atypical manifestations of chikungunya infection, Trans R Soc Trop Med Hygiene. 2010; 104(2): 89–96p.

. S.W. Brighton. Chloroquine phosphate treatment of chronic Chikungunya arthritis, S Afr Med J. 1984; 66(6): 217–8p.

. P. Kaur, M. Thiruchelvan, R.C.H. Lee, H. Chen, K.C. Chen, M.L. Ng, J.J.H. Chu. Inhibition of chikungunya virus replication by harringtonine, a novel antiviral that suppresses viral protein expression, Antimicrob Agents. 2013.

. chemotherapy, 57(1), 155-167.


  • There are currently no refbacks.